At the conclusion of this course, the student should be able to:
1. Define quality assurance and quality control.
2. Identify the early and late effects of radiation.
3. Differentiate between early and late effects of radiation.
4. Evaluate the radiosensitivity of tissues and organs.
5. Identify various stages of cell division, proliferation, and cancer induction.
6. Describe the processes of mitosis and meiosis.
7. Explain the cardinal principles of radiation protection.
8. List, discuss, and explain the long- and short-term hazards of radiation to human beings.
9. Explain the cardinal principles of radiation protection.
10. Discuss the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle.
11. Describe the radiation dose-response relationship.
12. Describe the three acute radiation syndromes.
13. Explain the theories and list the methods for radiation protection of medical personnel and patients.
14. List all of the State and National Radiation Health and Safety regulations for radiologic technology personnel.
15. List the fundamental principles of fluoroscopy and their impact on radiation protection.
16. Explain the room design for radiation protection.
Lecture-Related Topics & Scope:
I. Human Response to Radiation
A. Cell theory
B. Molecular composition
C. Tissues and organs
II. Biologic Aspects
A. Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau
B. Radiation responses
C. Dose response relationships
D. Biological factors in radiosensitivity
E. Genetic impact
F. Embryonic and fetal risks
G. Somatic effects
III. Irradiation of Macromolecules
A. Point lesions
B. Macromolecular synthesis
C. Radiation effects on DNA
D. Cell recovery
IV. Linear Energy Transfer
V. Relative Biological Effectiveness
VI. Acute Radiation Lethality
A. Prodromal period
B. Hematologic syndrome
C. Gastrointestinal syndrome
D. Central nervous system syndrome
E. Mean survival time
F. Local tissue damage
G. Hematologic effects
H. Cytogenetic effects
I. Late effects of radiation exposure
J. Early effects of radiation exposure
VII. Minimizing Patient Exposure
A. Exposure factors
C. Beam restriction
E. Patient considerations
F. Dose documentation
G. Image receptors
J. Dose area product
VIII. Radiation Health Physics
A. ALARA principle
B. Pregnancy policy
C. Occupational dose
D. Patient exposure dose
E. General public exposure dose
F. Ethical considerations
IX. Personnel Protection
A. Sources of exposure
1. Primary beam
2. Secondary radiation
B. Methods of protection - time, distance, and shielding
C. Protective devices
D. Special considerations
1. Mobile units
E. Radiation exposure and monitoring
F. Handling radioactive materials
G. Designing for radiation protection
X. Quality Control
C. Computerized tomography
XI. Quality Assurance Procedure Regulations/Dose Limits
A. Federal Regulatory Agency
B. California Department of Public Health
C. California Code of Regulations Title 17
Lab-Related Topics & Scope:
XII. Laboratory Experiments
A. Radiographic quality control
1. Coincidence of x-ray beam and light field
2. kVp accuracy
3. Source image receptor distance indicator
4. Timer accuracy
5. Focal spot accuracy
6. Exposure linearity
7. Exposure reproducibility
B. Verification of the new mAs formula
C. Reduction of patient exposure
D. Inverse Square Law
E. Occupational exposure reduction
F. Radiation protection
1. Time, distance, and shielding
2. Protective devices: aprons, gloves, thyroid shields, and gonadal shielding
G. Automatic exposure control
H. Digital imaging
1. Technical factors
2. Image artifacts
3. Processing algorithms
4. Processing histograms
K. Control of scatter radiation
2. Radiation protection
3. Image lag
4. Quality control
a. Technical factors
b. Dead man switch
d. Gloves, aprons, and thyroid shields
Radiologic Science for Technologists. 12th ed. Bushong, Stewart. Mosby. 2021.