At the conclusion of this course, the student should be able to:
1. Describe the characteristics of the scientific method and how it forms the basis of all modern scientific research.
2. Define homeostasis and explain how feedback mechanisms function to maintain homeostasis.
3. Explain relationships between structure and function at the molecular, cellular, and systems level of biological organization.
4. Explain how the structures of proteins and cells support the function of organ systems.
5. Compare and contrast the basic mechanisms by which cells, organs, and systems of the body carry out their specific physiological functions and maintain homeostasis.
6. Describe and evaluate the body's response to some major physiological stressors such as exercise, fasting, severe temperature extremes, injury, hemorrhage, infection, and diarrhea.
7. Apply knowledge about the function of the body to understanding the physiological basis for some of the major diseases and disorders of the human body.
8. Conduct physiological experiments that elucidate the functions of the body's organ systems.
Lecture-Related Topics and Scope:
I. Introductory Concepts
A. Scientific method
B. Levels of biological organization
II. Cell Structure and Function
C. Cell membranes
D. ATP and enzymes
III. Control Systems: Nervous and Endocrine
A. Neurons, membrane potentials, and synapses
B. Structure and function of central, peripheral, and autonomic divisions of the nervous system
C. Sensory receptors and transduction
D. Endocrine glands and hormones
IV. Muscle System
A. Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle
B. Mechanism and control of muscle contraction
V. Circulatory System
A. Basic plan of circulation
B. Cardiac cycle
C. Blood vessels and blood pressure
D. Regulation of cardiac output and blood pressure
E. Basis for heart attack, hypertension, and atherosclerosis
VI. Respiratory System
A. Mechanisms of ventilation, gas exchange, and gas transport
B. Regulation of respiratory rate
C. Description of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
VII. Urinary System
A. Mechanism of formation of urine
B. Regulation of salt and water balance
C. Regulation of acid-base balance
VIII. Digestive System
A. Organs and enzymes of digestion
B. Factors that affect absorption
IX. Immune System
A. Injury and infection
B. Organs, cells, molecules, and mechanisms that provide immune defense
X. Reproductive System
A. Organs and hormones involved in sperm production
B. Organs and hormones of menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and lactation
Laboratory-Related Topics and Scope:
XI. Laboratory Exercises
A. Acid-base balance
B. Blood chemistry
C. Cardiac function
D. Enzyme activity
E. Glucose tolerance test
G. Muscle contraction
H. Pulmonary function
I. Reflex arc
J. Renal function
Human Physiology. 16th ed. Fox, Stuart. McGraw-Hill. 2022.
Human Physiology. 2nd ed. Derrickson, Bryan. Wiley. 2019.
Instructor prepared lab manual textbook.