Students will be able to:
1. Identify the various components of the fire environment.
2. Describe the influence of topography on fire behavior.
3. Describe the types and characteristics of fuels and their influence on fire behavior.
4. Describe the different weather process in the atmosphere that influence fire behavior.
5. Describe the influence of temperature and humidity on fire behavior and their relationships
with each other.
6. Describe the factors that affect atmospheric stability and their relationships with each other.
7. Describe the factors that affect wind conditions and the influence they can have on wildland
8. Identify the types and uses of products available to observe and predict weather.
9. Describe the importance and frequency of conducting weather observations.
10. Demonstrate the correct use of a belt weather kit.
11. Describe the moisture thresholds and weather factors affecting the various fuel types.
12. Describe the factors that contribute to and the characteristics of extreme fire behavior.
13. Demonstrate the ability to gauge fire behavior and use it to guide fire line decisions.
I. The Fire Environment
A. Components of wildland fire environment
B. Methods of heat transfer
C. Methods of mass transport of firebrands on wildland fire
D. Relationship between flame height/length and relationship to fireline intensity
E. Primary environmental factors affecting ignition, fire intensity, and rate of spread
F. Relationship between intensities and their environments
G. Behavior of wildland fires using standard fire behavior terminology
II. Topographic Influences on Wildland Fire Behavior
A. Standard features of a topographic map
1. How it affects fuels and their availability for combustion
2. How it affects direction and rate of spread
C. How changes in fuels and topography can provide full and partial barriers
D. Slope percent - How it can be determined or estimated in the field
A. Fuel characteristics
B. Four dead fuel timelag categories used to classify fuels
C. Fuel Model Concept
IV. Basic Weather Processes
A. Structure and composition of the atmosphere
B. Define weather and list its elements
C. Sun-Earth radiation budget and Earth's heat balance
D. Factors affecting temperature
E. Greenhouse Effect
F. Temperature lag and their effects
V. Temperature and Humidity Relationships
A. Temperature Definitions, Characteristics and Variations
B. Effects of Variables
VI. Atmospheric Stability
A. Relationship among atmospheric pressure, temperature, density and volume
B. Temperature lapse rate
C. Effects of atmospheric stability
D. Types of temperature inversions, lifting processes
E. Elements of a thunderstorm
F. Visual indicators to describe stability of the atmosphere
G. Principles of Cloud Groups
VII. Wind Systems
A. Wind definitions and effects
1. General winds
2. Local winds
3. Typical diurnal slope and valley wind patterns
4. Critical winds and their impact
B. Ways in which topography alters wind patterns
C. Calculations for wind speed
VIII. Keeping Current with the Weather
A. Types, purpose and elements of Predictive Service Products
B. Types purpose and elements of National Weather Service Products
C. Importance of Incident Meteorologists (IMET) and Fire Behavior Analysis (FBAN)
IX. Observing the Weather
A. When, how often and where to take weather observations
B. Importance of field observers
C. Use and maintenance of belt weather kit
X. Fuel Moisture
A. Definitions, methods, and relationships of live fuel
B. Effect of precipitation and soil moisture
C. Timelag concept and categories
D. Moisture of extinction
XI. Extreme Wildland Fire Behavior
A. Common denominators of fire behavior on tragedy wildland fires
B. Extreme fire behavior characteristics
C. Crown fire development
D. Factors that contribute to spotting problem
E. Probability of ignition
F. Firewhirls, wind-driven and plume dominated fires
XII. Gauging Fire Behavior and Guiding Fireline Decisions
A. Safety and suppression decisions
B. Calculating the size of safety zones
C. Changes in fire behavior effecting firefighter safety, identifying the "next big change"
D. Fire behavior prediction tools
S-290 Student workbook. National Wildfire Coordinating Group. 2014 (classic)
S-290 Student CD-ROM. National Wildfire Coordinating Group. 2014 (classic)
National Fire Equipment System (NFES) 2894 Flame Field Guide. NFES. 2012 (classic)
NFES 2165 Fireline Handbook Appendix B. NFES. 2014 (classic)
NFES 1574 Aids for Determining Fuel Models. NFES. 2012 (classic)
NFES 1077 Incident Response Pocket Guide. NFES. 2018