1. Introduction to anatomical terminology.
2. Organizational levels of the body.
3. Body planes, surfaces, and cavities.
4. Basic histology.
5. Skeletal System I - divisions, bone groups, functions of skeleton.
6. Neurendocrine System I - design of nervous system, overall functions,
neuron design, ultrastructure of a skeletal muscle cell.
7. Muscular System I - overall functions, types and locations, typical
skeletal muscle design, ultrastructure of a skeletal muscle cell.
8. Sensory System I - sensor designs, with examples, olfaction,
gustation, cutaneous sensor design and function.
9. Cardiovascular System I - major components of the system and their
10. Respiratory System I - components, their locations, design, and
functions, cleaning mechanisms.
11. Renal System I - components: their design and locations, overall
12. Digestive System I - location, design, and overall functions of
13. Male Reproductive System I - design, location, and function of
components, basic principles of reproduction.
14. Female Reproductive System I - design, location, and function of
1. Cytology I - organelles: structure, location, and locations within
2. Integument I - basic layers: thick v. thin, overall functions.
3. Skeletal System II - axial skeleton: skull-cranial v. facial bone,
vertebral columnregions, design of typical vertebra.
4. Neuroendocrine System II - grey v. white matter, brain components,
with functions, ventricular-CSF system of brain.
5. Muscular System II - muscle cell physiology, motor units, tonus.
6. Sensory System II - the eye: structures and functions, the ear:
components and general functions.
7. Cardiovascular System II - the heart: pericardial sac, coronary
circuit, all components of the cardiac cycle.
8. Respiratory System II - the breathing mechanism.
9. Renal System II - gross and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys.
10. Digestive System II - salivation, peristalsis, diglutition, vomition,
11. Male Reproductive System II - emission, ejaculation, spermatogenesis,
cryptorchidism, male endocrinology.
12. Female Reproductive System II - menarche and menopause, pituitary:
1. Cytology II - membrane transport systems.
2. Cytology III - DNA and RNA, production control and processing of
3. Integument II - hair follicle structure, temperature regulation by the
skin, skin healing.
4. Skeletal System III - detailed features of the skull, anatomy of atlas
axis, and sacrum, ligaments of the spine, anatomy of the sterum, types
of ribs, anatomy of a typical rib.
5. Muscular System II - location, origins and insertions, and major
actions of thirty-nine skeletal muscles.
6. Neuroendocrine System III - neuronal physiology including all forms
of signalling employed by neurons.
7. Sensory Systems III - optical physics relating to the eye, optical
dysfunctions of the eye, physiology of the cochlea, semicircular
canals, saccules and utricles.
8. Cardiovascular System III - identification and course of 45 major
arteries and veins.
9. Cardiovascular System IV - hemodynamics of pulse, blood pressure,
vasomotor control, theory of sphygmomanometer.
10. Respiratory System III - lung volumes and capacities, minute and
alveolar ventilation, concept of physiologic dead space.
11. Renal System III - physiology of the renal corpuscle, concepts of
renal clearande, transport maximums and renal threshold, obligatory
12. Digestive System III - histology of stomach & duodenal walls,
physiology of gastric & duodenal activities, bile & pancreatic
secretions & control of their release, factors in absorption
13. Female Reproductive System III - conception, fertilization,
implantation, gestation, parturition,
1. Skeletal System IV - bones & bone features of the appendicular
2. Neurendocrine System IV - structural design of the spinal cord, the
reflex arc, sensory and motor pathways.
3. Cardiovascular System V - physiology of capilaries, veins & lymphatic
4. Cardiovascular System VI - cardiac output, reserve, insufficiency.
5. Respiratory System IV - surfactants, LaPlace's principle, ventilation
6. Digestive System IV.
7. Renal System IV.
8. Body Temperature Regulation - all mechanisms.
9. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance I.
10. Acid-Base Balance I.
1. Neurendocrine System V. 7. Digestive System V.
2. Neurendocrine System VI. 8. Blood Glucose Regulation.
3. Cardiovascular System VII. 9. Fluid-Electrolyte Balance II.
4. Cardiovascular System VIII. 10. Acid-Base Balance II.
5. Respiratory System V.
6. Renal System V.