At the conclusion of this course, the student should be able to:
1. Discuss and recall historical developments of the dairy industry in the United States.
2. Explain the importance of the dairy industry in California and the United States.
3. Distinguish between the major dairy cattle breeds, and recall the origin, adaptation and production of each breed.
4. Examine and evaluate the business opportunities and requirements in the dairy industry.
5. Analyze production, breeding and management records related to the dairy industry.
6. Identify the anatomical parts of the cow and relate each part to its form and function.
7. Define the nutritional needs and demonstrate proper feeding techniques of dairy cattle.
8. Analyze, translate and discuss dairy cattle pedigrees, linear scores and production records.
9. Demonstrate proper management skill involving dehorning, vaccinating, castrating, hoof trimming and teat removal of dairy cattle.
10. Identify cultural influences on the dairy industry.
11. Practice dairy cattle selection.
12. Analyze animal welfare concerns and the importance of educating the general public.
13. Research and discuss career opportunities and requirements for successful employment in the dairy industry.
14. Evaluate housing strategies in calves, heifers and milk cows for best management practices including economic and welfare considerations.
I. Introduction to the Dairy Industry
A. History of dairying including the contributions of ethnic groups
B. Economic importance to agriculture
C. Past, present and future trends in the dairy industry
D. Milk and by-product consumption and trends
E. Inventions and new discoveries
II. Opportunities and Careers in the Dairy Industry
A. Employment in production, processing and associated industries
B. Degree and skill development requirement
III. Essentials of Success in the Dairy Business
A. Financial needs to operate a dairy
B. Sources of feed, animals and equipment
C. Selection and management of the labor force
D. Government regulations
E. Herd records
F. Animal welfare
IV. Dairy Breeds, Origin and Adaptation
A. Bos Taurus versus Bos Indicus
B. Production traits of common dairy breeds
C. Rank in popularity and demand
D. Advantages and disadvantages of each breed
V. Development of a Dairy Herd
A. Developing a dairy enterprise
B. Selecting a breed
C. Locating a market for milk
D. Understanding quota, base and overbase milk
VI. Managing a Dairy Herd
A. Selecting animals
B. Analysis of pedigree and production records
C. Dehorning, vaccinating, castrating, teat removal and other treatment skills
D. Cow comfort
VII. Reproductive Management
A. Anatomy of the reproductive tract
B. Mating systems
C. Methods of heat synchronization in cows and heifers
D. Comparison of natural service vs artificial insemination
E. Embryo transfer
VIII. Care and Management of Calves
A. Calf management
a. Calf diseases
d. Best practices at birth
B. Heifer management
3. Replacement heifers
C. Growth of heifers and calves
A. Milk barn design
B. Housing for cows and calves
A. Udder anatomy and development
B. Milk Synthesis
C. Cow management through the stages of milk production
D. Health issues of lactating cows
E. Factors affecting milk and component production
F. Principles of milking
A. Anatomy of the digestive tract
B. Nutrient requirements of production stages
C. Feed management
D. Common feeds
All lab topics will be aligned with lecture topics.
Dairy Cattle Science. Ensminger, M.E. The Interstate Publishers. 2005 (classic)
Dairy Production and Processing: The Science of Milk and Milk Products. Campbell, J.R. and Marshall, R.T. Waveland Press. 2016 (classic)