Upon completion of this course, student will be able to:
1. Apply the scientific method to biological investigation.
2. Apply laboratory techniques, including proper microscope use, to observing and experimenting with biological phenomena.
3. Describe the role of biotic and/or abiotic factors to structuring biomes, ecosystems, communities, and populations, and how humans interact with these systems.
4. Correlate the structure and function of plant and animal organ systems, organs, tissues and cells.
5. Compare and contrast the cell structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and of plant and animal cells.
6. Explain the relationships between the structure of atoms, molecules, and biological polymers, and their significance to cells, physiology, genetics, and evolution.
7. Integrate knowledge of molecular genetics, inheritance, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis), and apply these to evolutionary biology.
8. Relate the mechanisms of evolution, adaptation, and speciation.
9. Recognize major evolutionary patterns and adaptations in the biodiversity of major taxa (domains, kingdoms, and phyla).
10. Describe the values, themes, methods, and history of biology and relate them to a course of study in the major.
1. Methods and philosophies of science
A. Steps of the scientific method in laboratory experiments
B. Sample size and statistical methods in testing hypotheses
2. Biological Organization: atoms to the biosphere
A. Introduction to the biosphere and major world biomes
B. Ecosystems: nutrient cycles (water, carbon, nitrogen), energy flow, trophic structure
C. Communities: niches, species interactions (resource partitioning, keystone species), co-evolution, succession
D. Populations: structure, growth and regulation, human populations
A. Nutrition (autotrophic and heterotrophic), macromolecules, vitamins, and minerals
B. Plant structure and function: nutrition, gas exchange, transport, and reproduction
C. Comparative animal structure and function: nutrition and digestion, gas exchange, transport
D. Surface to volume ratio
5. Classification and diversity of taxa: domain system, eukaryotic kingdoms and select phyla
A. Distinguishing characteristics
B. Specialization of structure and function
C. Ecology and evolution
A. Atomic structures and chemical bonding
B. Properties of water (polarity and hydrogen bonding, cohesion and adhesion)
C. States of matter
E. Macromolecule synthesis, structure and function (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
7. Cell Biology
A. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure and function (organelles, cytoskeleton)
B. Endosymbiotic hypothesis
C. Cell membrane structure
D. Transport: diffusion, osmosis, passive and active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis
8. Metabolic Pathways
A. Enzyme: structure and function
B. Enzyme activity: effects of pH and temperature, positive and negative feedback loops
C. Photosynthesis light and photopigments
D. Photosynthesis (light-dependent and light-independent reactions): substrates, products, and location
E. ATP synthesis using chemiosmosis
F. Aerobic vs. anaerobic respiration
G. Respiration (glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain): substrates, products, and location
9. Cellular Reproduction
B. Meiosis including sources of genetic variation
10. Molecular Genetics
A. DNA replication
B. Protein synthesis and genetic code
C. Mutations and mutagens
D. Changes in chromosome number and chromosome structure
11. Transmission Genetics
A. Mendelian Genetics
B. Post Mendelian Genetics: partial dominance, multiple alleles, polygenic inheritance, autosomal linkage, sex linkage
C. Effects of environment on genetic expression
12. Development of Evolutionary Theory
A. Pre-Darwinian thought: static world view to Lamarckian evolution
B. Darwin and natural selection
C. Evidence for evolution
13. Mechanisms of Evolution
A. Microevolution: types of selection, gene flow, mutation, and genetic drift
B. Macroevolution: biological species, reproductive isolation mechanisms, speciation and adaptive radiation
14. The effect of past and current understanding of biological principles, topics, and methods on the human condition
15. Biology as a discipline
16. Laboratory Exercises
Compound and dissecting microscope use
Enzyme structure and function
Properties of water
Cell types and structures
Mitosis and meiosis