Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to:
1. Analyze the historical development, mission and philosophy of
2. Evaluate the role of advocacy and the principles that guide
advocacy practice for social change.
3. Analyze the different motivations for advocacy and discuss the value in
doing advocacy work.
4. Compare and contrast the common challenges to the advocacy process and
develop strategies to overcome them.
5. Evaluate ethical issues and ethical dilemmas while applying a code
of ethics when appropriate.
6. Evaluate the contexts of agency, community, legislative and legal
7. Examine the techniques for identifying advocacy issues and the
skills needed to engage in successful advocacy practice.
8. Demonstrate the ability to identify the client, the problem,
and to create an advocacy based plan of action.
9. Examine and evaluate multiple community agency programs and services.
10. Examine inequality in social systems and cultural groups.
I. Historical Development of Advocacy in the U.S.
b. Mission of advocacy
c. Philosophy of advocacy
II. Role of Advocacy in Human Services
a. Principles of advocacy
b. Motivations for advocacy
c. Value of doing advocacy
III. Challenges and Barriers in Advocacy
a. Recognize barriers in the practice of advocacy
b. Develop strategies to overcome barriers
IV. Ethical Issues in Advocacy
a. Code of ethics for National Association of Social Workers
(NASW) and National Organization for Human Service Education
b. Recognizing ethical dilemmas
c. Utilizing the code of ethics to create solutions
V. Context of Agency, Community, Legislative and Legal Advocacy
a. Role of the human service worker and advocate in each area
b. Individual and group roles (allies and opponents)
c. Strategies for affecting legislative change
1. Identifying goals for change
2. Developing support, creating networks
3. Identifying change agents
4. Writing a proposal for change
VI. Techniques for identifying and defining agency, community and
a. Evaluating policy
b. Steps to create change in policy at all levels
c. Administrative law
VII. Explore Human Services in a cultural context
a. Identifying issues of discrimination based on class,
race, gender, religion and/or sexual orientation as they
relate to inequality within social systems.
b. Evaluating appropriateness, effectiveness, access and
adequacy for cultural groups.
Advocacy in Human Services, by Mark Ezell, Wadsworth Publishing Co.,
2003 #ISBN 0534348610.