The student will:
1. Describe and compare the requirements of various sexual and asexual
propagation methods used in the horticulture industry.
2. Select common structures, containers, soil media and other supplies
used in commercial plant propagation.
3. Evaluate and differentiate between sexual and asexual propagation
methods for various plant species.
4. Demonstrate seed collection, storage and sowing techniques for a
variety of plant species.
5. Determine how seed dormancy requirements are met for certain plant
species propagated by seed.
6. Describe the physiological processes and environmental requirements of
7. Collect cuttings from stock plants and store them for successful
8. Describe the physiological processes of wound-healing and root
formation in vegetative propagation techniques.
9. Compare hormone treatments, wounding, and other methods of improving
rooting success of cuttings.
10. Describe the benefits of bottom heat, leaf surface reduction, hormone
dips, mist systems, and hardening off.
11. Select propagation equipment and structures appropriate for various
plant varieties and commercial nursery enterprises.
12. Employ sanitation procedures in the use of propagation materials and
13. Evaluate propagation methods in terms of economic return for annuals,
biennials and perennials.
14. Analyze propagation methods based on desired outcomes in plant
characteristics, uniformity, quality and quantity.
15. Justify the significance of the selection of high quality plant
material in all plant propagation practices.
16. Implement plant labeling requirements associated with good propagation
practices and plant patent laws.
17. Demonstrate safe and correct use and care of grafting and budding
18. Demonstrate procedures for whip, tongue and cleft grafting.
19. Demonstrate procedures for T-budding.
20. Classify business enterprises within the nursery industry based on the
propagation methods of plants sold.
21. Analyze the impact of the U.S Plant Variety Protection Act on nursery
22. Describe various nursery enterprises that specialize in different
propagation methods to supply wholesale growers.
I. Propagation structures and materials
A. Propagation structures
1. Cold frames
2. Hot beds
4. Germinating chambers
B. Media for propagating nursery plants
C. Sanitation techniques in propagation
D. Soil, water and supplementary fertilizers
E. Containers for propagating and growing young plants
II. Principles and techniques of plant propagation by seed
A. Types of plants propagated by seed
1. Annuals and herbaceous perennials
5. Fruit tree rootstocks
B. Pollination and fertilization fundamentals
C. Seedling variation
D. Compatibility and pollination requirements of certain
E. Monoecious and dioecious plant varieties
F. Pollination control techniques
G. Fruit and seed development
H. Apomictic seeds (e.g.: Citrus)
I. Seed anatomy
J. Seed collection, processing and storage
K. Seed germination
1. Environmental factors
2. Seed treatments
a. Scarification and seedcoat softening
b. Stratification and dormancy requirements
c. Heat treatment
L. Transplanting seedlings
M. Hardening off
III. Characteristics of plant propagation by vegetative methods
A. Clones and genetic uniformity
B. Maintaining identity of nursery and propagation stock
C. Botanical nomenclature related to propagation
D. Cultivars (cultivated varieties)
E. Varieties (botanical or naturally occurring varieties)
1. Interspecies hybrids
2. Intergeneric hybrids
G. Transmission of diseases through vegetative propagation
IV. Principles and techniques of plant propagation by cuttings
A. Types of plants propagated by cuttings
2. Shrubs and vines
B. Types of cuttings
1. Stem cuttings
2. Leaf and leaf-bud cuttings
3. Root cuttings
C. Collection and storage of cuttings
D. Root-inducing treatments
3. Callus and callus development
E. Greenhouse control of cuttings
1. Types of rooting media
2. Bottom heat
3. Leaf surface reduction
4. Overhead intermittent mist
V. Principles and techniques of plant propagation by grafting and
A. Types of plants propagated by grafting and budding
3. Fruit and nut trees
4. Landscape tree cultivars
B. Theoretical aspects
1. Reasons for grafting and budding
2. Formation of the graft union
a. Cambium alignment in stock and scion
b. Vascular tissue development in the new graft
1. Healing of the union
2. Polarity in grafting
a. Stock (rootstock)
d. Stock-scion relationships and effects of stock
on scion development
C. Grafting techniques
1. Methods of grafting
d. Variations and special methods
2. Tools and materials
a. Use and care of grafting knives
b. Grafting wax and sealers
3. Selection and storage of scion wood
4. Seasonal timing
a. Condition of scion wood
b. Condition of stock
5. After-care of grafted plants
D. Budding techniques
b. Other methods and variations
2. Tools and materials
a. Use and care of budding knives
b. Wrapping materials
3. Seasonal timing
a. Condition of bud wood
b. Condition of stock
4. After-care of budded plants
VI. Principles and techniques of plant propagation by other means
B. Air layering
2. Tuberous roots
1. Bulbs, bulblets, aerial bubils
2. Corms and cormels
E. Stolons and runners
VII. Micropropagation and tissue culture
A. Overview of micropropagation in horticultural crops
a. Taking of explants
b. Culture in sterile media
c. Callusing and multiplication
B. Micropropagation facilities and techniques
C. Evaluation of micropropagation methods applied to various
D. Plants commonly propagated by micropropagation methods
VIII. Evaluation of propagation methods
A. Costs and benefits associated with asexual and sexual means
1. Uniformity and predictability
2. Equipment and skills required
3. Time required to produce saleable plant product
B. Methods required to produce certain kinds of plants or
1. Lines and inbred lines
a. Maintain desired genotypes
b. Bypass or maintain juvenility characteristics
c. Maintain desired growth form of parent stock
C. Selection for desired characteristics
1. Superior stock plants
a. Disease and insect resistance
b. Foliage, flower and form characteristics
c. Rate of growth to mature size
d. Time from propagation to flowering/fruiting
2. Quality of propagated plants
a. Trueness to type
b. Uniform health and vigor
D. Plant Variety Protection Act and plant patent law
1. Patented plants
2. Registered trademark plants
3. Labeling requirements
IX. Types of specialty propagation nurseries
C. Grapevines and fruit trees
E. Floriculture crops (rooted cuttings)
Hartmann H., and Kester, D. (2002). Plant Propagation, Principles and
Practices, 7th ed., Prentice Hall, NJ.
MacDonald, B. (1986). Practical Woody Plant Propagation for Nursery
Growers, Timber Press.
American Landscape and Nursery Association (1996). American Standard for
Nursery Stock, American National Standards Institute.
Lamb, Kelly, Bowbrick (1981). Nursery Stock Manual, Timber Press.
Dirr, M., Heuser, Jr., C. (1987). The Reference Manual of Woody Plant
Propagation, Viking Press.