A. Periodontal health
1. Describe the healthy periodontium with regard to its anatomy
2. Describe the clinical, histologic, and radiographic features of
the healthy periodontium.
3. Describe the function of the healthy periodontium.
B. Classification of the periodontal diseases
1. Describe and differentiate the clinical, radiographic, and
histologic features of the periodontal diseases and outline an
acceptable system for their classification.
2. Apply clinical assessment tools to evaluate, diagnose, and
classify the periodontal diseases: gingivitis and adult onset
1. Describe the epidemiology of the periodontal diseases.
2. Describe several principal epidemiological indices used to
measure the prevalence and severity of the periodontal
1. Describe the etiology of the periodontal diseases.
2. Discuss the prevailing theories about the etiology of the
periodontal diseases. Be able to compare and contrast
conflicting theories. Analyze "specificity theory" and
discuss how this theory affects periodontal diagnosis and
3. Describe the stages of development and composition of human
4. Describe the role of microbial plaque in periodontal disease
initiation and progression.
5. Classify specific microorganisms associated with the periodontal
6. Describe the role of diet in the formation of microbial plaque.
7. Describe the formation, composition and modes of attachment of
8. Identify the other factors such as overhanging restorations and
predisposing factors which may contribute to periodontal
9. Explain the role of occlusal trauma as an etiologic factor.
E. Pathogenesis and disease progression
1. Describe and apply the concepts of disease progression of the
2. Discuss prevailing theories about periodontal disease
progression in each of the known periodontal diseases.
3. Describe how the prevailing theories are used in the application
of periodontal assessments and therapy.
4. Describe and differentiate factors that may modify the host's
response to periodontal disease.
5. Explain the immunopathology of the periodontal diseases.
F. Dental Hygiene Assessment and Diagnosis.
1. Develop expertise with current clinical and medical diagnostics
used to identify the periodontal diseases.
2. Interpret the clinical and radiographic features associated with
the periodontal diseases to establish a periodontal diagnosis
for chronic gingivitis and adult onset periodontitis.
3. Diagnose/interpret the severity of adult onset periodontitis as
presented by American Academy of Periodontology (AAP).
4. Discuss both local and systemic modifying factors of the
G. The aim of periodontal therapy.
1. Explain the aim of periodontal therapy.
2. Describe the refocus of periodontal therapy from resective to
3. Discuss the renewed emphasis on preventive and maintenance
phases of therapy.
1. Discuss common treatment modalities of the periodontal diseases.
2. Describe and discuss the essential of plaque control including
methods, materials, rationale, and techniques for the
periodontally involved patient.
3. Initiate a program of preventive dental care for a periodontally
4. Describe the biologic basis for scaling and for root planing.
5. Describe and discuss the rationale for the initial phases of
therapy and explain the procedures inherent in such therapy.
6. Formulate a sequence of therapeutic measures to arrest a
patient's periodontal disease (gingivitis/adult onset
7. Discuss probable prognoses of the periodontal diseases
gingivitis and adult onset periodontitis.
8. Explain and discuss pharmacological and adjunctive aspects of
9. Discuss the surgical and other therapeutic measures used to
treat the periodontal diseases by the periodontist.
A. The Ideal Periodontium
C. Etiology of the Periodontal diseases
1. Plaque colonization and maturation
2. The microbiology of the periodontal diseases
3. Supporting Theories - Koch's postulates, Specificity theory,
Mixed bacterial infection theory.
4. Contributing factors
(a) The formation, composition and modes of attachment of
supra and subgingival calculus; conditions such as
carious lesions, overhanging restorations and their role
in etiologic development of the periodontal diseases.
5. Predisposing factors - tobacco, age, diet, oral hygiene.
D. Host response/ the inflammatory response
1. Histological response
2. Vascular and cellular responses
3. Immunology response
E. Pathogenesis/Disease activity
F. Traditional Diagnostic tools
G. Biologic width.
H. Classification of the periodontal diseases
I. Dental Hygiene Diagnosis
1. Aims/biologic rationale/overview of therapeutic
3. Initial therapy/periodontal maintenance/oral prophylaxis
4. Efficacy of initial therapy
5. Decision making
6. Polishing (selective/therapeutic)
7. Adjunct therapy
L. Postoperative instructions
M. Follow-up care/referral
O. Periodontic/prosthodontic considerations
P. Resective procedures
Q. Regenerative procedures
Dental Hygiene Theory & Practice. Darby, M, and Walsh, M., WB Saunders,
Periodontal Instrumentation, Pattison, A. and Pattison, G., Norwalk:
Appleton and Lange, 1992
Clinical Practice of the Dental Hygienist 7th Ed. Wilkins, E.M., Malvern:
Williams & Wilkins, 1990
SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS: Medical Emergencies in the Dental Office, 4th Ed.,
St. Louis, CV Mosby, 1993